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M-theory, the theory formerly known as Strings
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Metatron
Posted 1/28/2008 12:37 PM (#3546)
Subject: M-theory, the theory formerly known as Strings



This was intended to be an answer to RE: What is String Theory?


String theory has been assimilated into what is now considered the most advanced model.....




M-theory, the theory formerly known as Strings
The Standard Model
In the standard model of particle physics, particles are considered to be points moving through space, tracing out a line called the World Line. To take into account the different interactions observed in Nature one has to provide particles with more degrees of freedom than only their position and velocity, such as mass, electric charge, color (which is the "charge" associated with the strong interaction) or spin.
The standard model was designed within a framework known as Quantum Field Theory (QFT), which gives us the tools to build theories consistent both with quantum mechanics and the special theory of relativity. With these tools, theories were built which describe with great success three of the four known interactions in Nature: Electromagnetism, and the Strong and Weak nuclear forces. Furthermore, a very successful unification between Electromagnetism and the Weak force was achieved (Electroweak Theory), and promising ideas put forward to try to include the Strong force. But unfortunately the fourth interaction, gravity, beautifully described by Einstein's General Relativity (GR), does not seem to fit into this scheme. Whenever one tries to apply the rules of QFT to GR one gets results which make no sense. For instance, the force between two gravitons (the particles that mediate gravitational interactions), becomes infinite and we do not know how to get rid of these infinities to get physically sensible results







M-theory
Apart from the fact that instead of one there are five different, healthy theories of strings (three superstrings and two heterotic strings) there was another difficulty in studying these theories: we did not have tools to explore the theory over all possible values of the parameters in the theory. Each theory was like a large planet of which we only knew a small island somewhere on the planet. But over the last four years, techniques were developed to explore the theories more thoroughly, in other words, to travel around the seas in each of those planets and find new islands. And only then it was realized that those five string theories are actually islands on the same planet, not different ones! Thus there is an underlying theory of which all string theories are only different aspects. This was called M-theory. The M might stand for Mother of all theories or Mystery, because the planet we call M-theory is still largely unexplored

Edited by Metatron 1/28/2008 12:43 PM
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John W. Kelly
Posted 1/28/2008 8:22 PM (#3563 - in reply to #3546)
Subject: RE: M-theory, the theory formerly known as Strings


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This is why black holes and the big bang are being studied in depth. Theories state that at high tempatures (during the big bang) the EM and weak forces unify. At even higher temps, the strong force might do the same. At higher temps still, and without a Higgs field, could the four become one?
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SouthernCrow
Posted 1/29/2008 2:30 AM (#3567 - in reply to #3546)
Subject: RE: M-theory, the theory formerly known as Strings


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M-theory the mother of all theories, it is an interesting idea and Albert Einstein was one who also sought a TOE - theory of everything.

In my opinion the theory of everything already exists. Its just that most people dont have the eyes to see it. Theory and rational thought are ideas and are the element air. In the zodiac there is a trinity of air - aquarius, libra and gemini. To become master of the air one must learn to master the trinity of air. Aquarius something which governs science is fairly well developed. The other two Libra and especially Gemini are not as well developed in our civilisation. The ancient egyptians possibly had a better grasp of Gemini than we did because Gemini rules symbols and symbolism. That is why geminis are associated with language and communication because language is made up of symbols. A symbol is an idea that is elastic. A symbol therefore has many meanings. In our language words are the symbols. Again the problem is imbalance as symbolic perception is associated with the right side of the brain. The majority of people are left brain dominant. To those who want to know the theory of everything I ask what is not either earth, water, fire or air? Do not these cover everything?????
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mruppert
Posted 1/30/2008 2:55 AM (#3572 - in reply to #3546)
Subject: RE: M-theory, the theory formerly known as Strings



1000500100100100100252525
Hi all:
     I have to make this really quick, as I have to get up in the morning....and have all ready spent a lot of time doing absolutely critical things, like cleaning kitty litter.
      Higgs......are we sure about this? What provides the mass to quarks  and leptons??????? ( in re eweak ).
       In re Einstein.....he explained 'visible' mass of universe. What about "dark matter"?
       Also, are we jumping the gun on certain things...standard model? Charm is standard model....strange kaon particulate, bottom, oh crap......whatever particulate, oh.....B-meson (test guess) BUT, what about good ole top....top seems to go someplace else!
         Okay, if we have beyond a certain number of dimensions in space(time) how would that affect your Higgs postulate?
     Sorry I can't write about thirty pages, but I just can't and I am afraid SouthernCrow would get really upset with me.
Regards,
Marty and Electron Lucky, Muon Poppy and Tau SissyGirl
      
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John W. Kelly
Posted 1/30/2008 11:56 AM (#3583 - in reply to #3572)
Subject: RE: M-theory, the theory formerly known as Strings


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mruppert - 2008-01-30 2:55 AM      Higgs......are we sure about this?


No. In the big bang theory, if we where to look back into the first fractions of a second, we see the unified condition of the EM and weak forces. Further back, the strong force. Just seeing a pattern. Would the Higgs even exist in these high temps?
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